Adware: A form of malicious code that displays unsolicited advertising on your computer.Anti-virus Software: Software that attempts to block malicious programs/code/software (called viruses or malware) from harming your computer.
CDA: The Communications Decency Act of 1996, a part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, was the first attempt by the U. Congress to protect children on the Internet from pornography. Supreme Court struck down the indecency provisions of the CDA in the historical cyberlaw case of Reno v. The Supreme Court held that a law that places a “burden on adult speech is unacceptable if less restrictive alternatives would be at least as effective in achieving” the same goal.CDA prohibited knowingly sending or displaying “indecent” material to minors through the computer, defined as: “any comment, request, suggestion, proposal, image, or other communication that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms of patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs.” The Act was immediately challenged by a law suit by the ACLU and blocked by a lower court. However, the court reaffirmed the application of obscenity and child pornography laws in cyberspace—an important victory for the protection of children online.Chatroom: A location online that allows multiple users to communicate electronically with each other in real time, as opposed to delayed time as with e-mail.Circumventor Sites: Parallel websites that allow children to get around filtering software and access sites that have been blocked.Closed Systems: A limited network of sites that are rated and categorized by maturity level and quality.Within a closed system, children cannot go beyond the network whitelist of approved websites, also referred to as a “walled garden.” Cookie: A piece of information about your visit to a website that some websites record automatically on your computer.By using a cookie, a website operator can determine a lot of information about you and your computer. For example, a cookie remembers that you prefer aisle seats in the front of the plane.COPA: The Child Online Protection Act (COPA) of 1998 was an effort by the U. Congress to modify the CDA in response to the Supreme Court’s decision in Reno v. The law sought to make it a crime for commercial websites to make pornographic material that is “harmful to minors” available to juveniles.The purpose of COPA was to protect children from instant access to pornographic “teaser images” on porn syndicate web pages, by requiring pornographers to take credit card numbers, adult verification numbers, or access codes to restrict children’s access to pornographic material and to allow access to this material for consenting adults only.Despite the critical need for measures to protect children from accessing harmful materials, the law was immediately challenged and blocked by lower courts, and has become the subject of an epic legal battle, still raging today.The permanent injunction against the enforcement of COPA remains in effect today. COPPA: The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, which went into effect in April 2000, requires websites that market to children under the age of 13 to get “verifiable parental consent” before allowing children access to their sites.