A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, information gathering, There is a longstanding controversy about the term's true meaning.In this controversy, the term hacker is reclaimed by computer programmers who argue that it refers simply to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks, In computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems.
Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the context.The subculture around such hackers is termed network hacker subculture, hacker scene, or computer underground.It initially developed in the context of phreaking during the 1960s and the microcomputer BBS scene of the 1980s.It is implicated with 2600: The Hacker Quarterly and the alt.2600 newsgroup.In 1980, an article in the August issue of Psychology Today (with commentary by Philip Zimbardo) used the term "hacker" in its title: "The Hacker Papers".It was an excerpt from a Stanford Bulletin Board discussion on the addictive nature of computer use.In the 1982 film Tron, Kevin Flynn (Jeff Bridges) describes his intentions to break into ENCOM's computer system, saying "I've been doing a little hacking here". By 1983, hacking in the sense of breaking computer security had already been in use as computer jargon, However, the release of the film War Games that year, featuring a computer intrusion into NORAD, raised the public belief that computer security hackers (especially teenagers) could be a threat to national security.This concern became real when, in the same year, a gang of teenage hackers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, known as The 414s, broke into computer systems throughout the United States and Canada, including those of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Security Pacific Bank.The Newsweek article appears to be the first use of the word hacker by the mainstream media in the pejorative sense. House of Representatives on September 26, 1983, about the dangers of computer hacking, and six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year.Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking. As a result of these laws against computer criminality, white hat, grey hat and black hat hackers try to distinguish themselves from each other, depending on the legality of their activities.These moral conflicts are expressed in The Mentor's "The Hacker Manifesto", published 1986 in Phrack.